22 February 2016

Schemes initiated by the Telangana Government

Previously we discussed the Polices of Telanagana State.

Now we will discuss about different schemes initiated by the government of Telangana for the welfare of women, dalits, poor, old people and others.

Here is the list of schemes by Telangana government
  1. Kalyana Lakshni Scheme
  2. Arogya Lakshmi
  3. Asara Pension Scheme
  4. Telangana Housing for the poor
  5. Land distribution to dalits
  6. Rice distribution scheme
  7. SHE teams
  8. Strengthening security apparatus

Let's discuss each scheme in detail

TSPSC- Schemes of the Telangana Government

  1. Kalyana Lakshni Scheme

    • This scheme is for SC/ST girls who are getting married.
    • Government will provide financial assistance of Rs. 51,000 to the bride's family.
    • Telangana girls who are above 18 years of age, belonging to SC or ST, with an annual income below Rs. 2 Lakh are eligible for this scheme.
    • It became operational since October 2, 2014.
  2. Arogya Lakshmi

    • It aims at providing One full meal for pregnant and lactating women at the anganwadi centre.
    • It was launched on January 1, 2015.
    • Eligible for this scheme are: Pregnant women, Lactating mothers, children below 6 years.
    • Government is spending Rs. 627.96 crore for this scheme.
  3. Asara Pension Scheme

    • This scheme is for old people, widows, handicapped, HIV patients and others who lost their way of income.
    • Till now government spent Rs. 4,700 crore for this scheme.
    • It works under social safety net strategy welfare mission of Telangana stste.
  4. Telangana Housing for the poor

    • This scheme aims to improve the standard of living for the poor.
    • It provides 2BHK flats in Hyderabad and other urban areas.
    • Government is spending Rs. 37 crore on this housing scheme.
  5. Land distribution to dalits

    • This scheme is also called 'Dalitulaku Bhupampini'.
    • It allotted 3 acers of land along with irrigation facilities to landless SC women.
    • It was inaugurated on the independence day at Golconda fort.
    • Government spent Rs. 94 crore in the first year for this scheme.
  6. Rice distribution scheme

    • Under this scheme, government provides 87.57 lakh eligible farmers, are provided with rice for Rs. 1 per kg.
    • Its aim is to eradicate hunger deaths in Telangana.
    • This scheme provides rice to each and every person in the family. Each person will be given 6 kg of rice.
    • To implement this scheme government needs 1.80 lakh MT of rice every month.
  7. SHE teams

    • SHE teams are introduced for the safety of women and girls.
    • It aims to monitor eve teasers and stalkers in rural and urban areas.
    • It came into force on 1st April, 2015.
    • For SHE team idea, state government appointed a seven member committee, headed by IAS officer Poonam Malkondaiah.
  8. Strengthening security apparatus

    • Telangana government introduced this scheme to safeguard and secure the lives of citizens in the state.
    • It spent Rs. 271 crore to purchase 4,433 vehicles for Hyderabad and Cyberabad police.
    • Telangana government monthly allocated to each police station as follows - 
      • in city : Rs. 75,000
      • in District Head Quarters: Rs. 50,000
      • in villages: Rs. 25,000
    • It also introduced CCTV project by which 1 lakh CCTV cameras will be set in the city of Hyderabad, to monitor the functioning of the city and its people.

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15 February 2016

TSPSC - Policies of Telangana State

Telangana, the 29th state of India, was formed in June 2014, with Hyderabad as its capital. The state was formed as a result of the split of erstwhile Andhra Pradesh state. The state is land locked by (new) Andhra Pradesh to the south and east, Maharashtra and Karnataka to the west, and Odisha and Chhattisgarh to the north.

Policies of Telangana State

Here we study six policies/missions/yojanas/projects that are being implemented by the government of Telangana for the upliftment of the state in various fields.
They are:
  1. Mission Kakatiya
  2. Telangana water grid project 
  3. Swachh Telangana - Swachh Hyderabad
  4. Telangana Haritha Haram
  5. Telangana State Industrial Policy
  6. Telangana Gram Jyothi

Each policy in brief

Policies of Telangana State for TSPSC Group II exam

  1. Mission Kakatiya

    • This mission focuses on reclamation of tanks for growth in state.
    • Restoring minor irrigation sources.
    • 'Mana Ooru - Mana Cheruvu'
    • Aim: Retrieving the lost glory of minor irrigation in the state with community participation for ensuring sustainable water security.
    • Total tanks as of July 2014, in Telangana - 46,531
    • This mission aims to restore all 46,531 tanks in the next five years, 20% in each year.
    • Objective: It enhances the development of agriculture based income for small and marginal farmers by accelerating the development of minor irrigation tanks.
    • The first name of this mission is - Chinna Neeti Vanarula Punarudhara.
    • Later renamed as Mission Kakatiya.
    • State government planned t restore 9,306 tanks per year.
  2. Telangana water grid project 

    • Though two perennial rivers flow through Telangana, most state have no clean drinking water.
    • To change this situation, Telangana CM, K Chandra Sekhar Rao, designed Telangana water grid project to provide a sustainable and permanent solution to the drinking water problem.
    • Objective: To provide 100 liters of clean drinking water per person in rural households and 150 liters per person in urban households.
    • Aim: To provide water to 25,000 rural and 67 urban habitations.
    • This project derives inspiration from Siddipet drinking water project, which CM KCR himself was part of the design of that project.
    • Telangana State CM, KCR decided to change this state water grid project to Mission Bhagiratha.
  3. Swachh Telangana - Swachh Hyderabad

    • Aim: To transform Hyderabad into a clean and green, slum free city.
    • Introduced by Telangana CM, K Chandra Sekhar Rao.
    • Telangana state government allocated Rs. 200 crore for this program.
    • Niti Aayog spent 75 crore for this campaign.
  4. Telangana Haritha Haram

    • This program aims to transform the state into Bangaru Telangana.
    • In the coming three years, 230 crore trees to Telangana greenary.
    • It aims to increase tree cover in the state from 24% to 33%.
    • The key person of this program is the State forest minister, Mr. Jogg Ramanna.
  5. Telangana State Industrial Policy

    • This Program is shortly named as 'TS iPASS'.
    • Motto: Single window policy.
    • Vision: "Research to innovation; Innovation to industry; Industry to Prosperity."
    • Slogan: In Telangana - Innovate, Incubate, Incorporate.
    • This policy makes doing business easy.
    • TS iPASS stands for 'Telangana State Industrial Project Approval and Self Certification System.'
  6. Telangana Gram Jyothi

    • This program is the logical continuation of 'Mana Ooru, Mana Pranalika'.
    • It aims to improve the service for rural areas in Telangana.
    • It works under the ministry of Panchayat Raj, strengthening the Gram Panchayats.
    • Goal: Bring in much derived accountability, transparency in functioning of public institutions working at Gram Panchayat level and make them responsive to the needs of the people.
    • At present there are nine rural districts in Telangana.

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30 January 2016

Satavahanas - Socio cultural conditions in Ancient Telngana

Satavahanas in Telangana

Satavahanas succeeded Nandas, Mauryas, Sungas and Kanvas. Satavahanas came to rule after Mauryan Empire. They ruled for about 400 years. According to Matsya Purana there were 29 Satavahana rulers. Satavahanas were also called Salivahanas or Satakarnis. Inscriptions represent them as the earliest rulers making grants in cash and land to the Buddhist monks and brahmins. In Ashoka inscriptions the Andhras are mentioned as border people.

Rulers with much or little importance among all the Satavahana rulers were Simukha, Pulumavi I, Hala, Gautamiputra Satakarni are some.


  • Simukha was the founder of the Satavahana dynasty.
  • He unified various Andhra territories ruled from BC 271 to BC 248.
  • Dharanikota near Amaravati, Guntur district was the first capital of Simukha. Later he shifted his capital to Pratistana in Aurangabad district.
Satakarni II is the sixth ruler of the satavahana dynasty extended to west by conquering Malwa (parts of Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan). He ruled for 56 years. After him eight rulers came and went with no much notable achievement.

Pulumavi I came to throne and brought down Susarman and occupied Magadha. By this Satavahanas became all India's imperial rulers.

After him the rulers were weak and were driven by Sakas out of Maharashtra (Pratisthana, capital of Simukha).

During that weak period, there was one thing that could gain importance. That goes to the account of the seventeenth Satavahana ruler, Hala. Gathasaptasati is the famous work of Hala. The king Hala has a minister by name Gunadya, who wrote Brihatkadha.

Gautamiputra Satakarni

  • After all these rulers comes the most notable 23rd Satavahana king Gautamiputra Satakarni. 
  • He came to the throne in AD 62.
  • He made recovery of lost territories from the western Kshatrapas.
  • He was described as the Restorer of the glory of the Satavahanas.
  • Kingdoms under the territory of Gautamiputra Satakarni were - Asika, Assaka, Mulaka, Anupa, Kukura, Aparanta, Vidarbha, Akara, Saurashtra and Avanti.
  • Mountain regions under his rule were - Vindhya, Pariyatra, Achavata, Kanhagiri, Siritana, Sahya, Malaya, Mahendra, Sata and Chakora.
  • Gautamiputra Satakarni's kingdom also includes southern parts of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Odhisa.
  • He died in AD 86.
After Gautamiputra came Pulumavi II.

Then came Yajnasri Satakarni, fought with Saka Satrap, Rudradamana and was defeated. He lost all the western possessions. He ruled till AD 157. His ship marked coins shows extensive maritime trade. His death marked an end to the rule of Satavahanas by 2nd century AD.

Social and Spiritual conditions of Satavahanas


  1. Dharanikota in Guntur district
  2. Pratistana in Aurangabad district
  3. Dharmapuri in Karimnagar district
  4. Srikakulam in Krishna district
The above mentioned places were used as capitals by Satavahana rulers during various periods of their rule.

During their period, Deccan was an emporium of inland and maritime trade. Regions between rivers Krishna and Godavari had many ports and were active. They had lot of currency to facilitate trade. The time of Telugus during that period was a period of great industrial, maritime and commercial activity.


Satavahana rulers followed Buddhism and also performed vedic ritualism. They constructed several Buddhist stupas, Viharas, chaityas. They loved literacy and architecture. The Stupa at Amaravati is known for its architecture par excellence.

Fall of Satavahanas left Andhra into Political chaos. Local kings and invaders formed several small kingdoms to start their own dynasties. During AD 180 and AD 624, Ikshvakus, Vishnukundins, Vakatakas, Pallavas, Anandagotras, Kalingas and others ruled over their small kingdoms. This continued till the rise of Eastern Chalukyas.

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16 January 2016

TSPSC Group II exam Scheme and Syllabus of Examination

TSPSC Group II exam Scheme and Syllabus of Examination

The first stage of Group II TSPSC examination is a objective written type exam consisting of four papers, each paper 150 multiple choice questions for 150 marks, with a duration of two and half hours for each paper. This means that the exam will be held in two days, each day two shifts.

Scheme of Examination

The four papers of the Group II exam are:

  1. General Studies and General Abilities
  2. History, Polity and Society
    1. Socio - Cultural History of India and Telangana 
    2. Overview of Indian Constitution and Politics
    3. Social Structure, Issues and Public Policies
  3. Economy and Development
    1. Indian Economy: Issues and Challanges
    2. Economy and Development of Telangana
    3. Issues of Development and Change
  4. Telangana Movement and State Formation
    1. The Idea of Telangana (1948 - 1970)
    2. Mobilisation Phase (1971 - 1990)
    3. Towards formation of Telangana State (1991 - 2014)
And then Interview for 75 Marks.
Telangana State Public Service Commission Group II exams

Syllabus of the Examination

  1. Paper I: General Studies and General Abilities

    1. Current Affairs - Regional, National and International
    2. International Relations and Events
    3. General Science, India's achievements in science and technology
    4. Environmental Issues; Disaster Management - Prevention and Mitigation Strategies
    5.  Geography
    6. History and Cultural Heritage of India
    7. Society, Culture, Heritage, Arts and Literature of Telangana
    8. Policies of Telangana State
    9. Schemes of Telangana State
    10. Social Exclusion, Rights, Issues and Inclusive Policies
    11. Logical Reasoning: Analytical Ability and Data Interpretation
    12. Basic English (10th Standard)
  2. Paper II: History, Polity and Society

    1. Socio - Cultural History of India and Telangana 
      1. Salient features of Indus Valley Civilisation
        1. Society and culture - Early and later vedic civilisations
        2. Religious movements in 6th century B.C. - Jainism and Buddhism
        3. Socio cultural contributions of Mauryas, Guptas, Pallavas, Chalukyas, Cholas art and architecture - Harshs and the Rajput age.
      2. The advent of Islam and the establishment of Delhi Sultanate
        1. Socio - Cultural conditions under the sultanate - Sufi and Bhakti movements
        2. The Mughals: Social and cultural conditions; Language, Literature, Art and Architecture
        3. Rise of Marathas and their contribution to culture
        4. Socio - cultural conditions in the Deccan under the Bahamanis and the Vijayanagara - Literature, Art and Architecture
      3. Advent of Europeans
        1. Rise and expansion of British rule
        2. Socio - Cultural policies - Cornwallis, Wellesley, William Bentick and others
        3. The rise of socio religious reform movements in the 19th century
        4. Social protest movements in India - Jothiba and Savitribhai Phule, Ayyankali, Narayana Guru, Periyar Ramaswamy Naicker, Gandhi, Ambedkar etc.
      4. Socio cultural conditions in ancient Telangana
        1. Kings and kingdoms
          • Satavahanas
          • Ikshvakus
          • Vishnukundins
          • Mudigonda
          • Vemulavada Chalukyas
        2. Religion, Literature, Art and Architecture
        3. Medieval Telangana - Contribution of Kakatiyas, Rachakonda and Devarakonda Velamas, Qutub Shahis
        4. Socio cultural developments :  emergence of composite culture
        5. Fairs, Festivals, Mohrram, Ursu, Jataras etc.
      5. Formation of Asafjahi dynasty - from Nijaam-ul-Mulk to Mir Osaman Ali Khan
        1. Salarjung reforms social systems and social conditions - Jagirdars, Jamindars, Deshmukhs and Doras 
        2. Vetti and bhagela system and position of women
        3.  Rise of socio cultural movements in Telangana
        4. Arya samaj, Andhra Maha Sabha, Andhra Mahila Sabha, Adi-Hindu Movements, Literary and library movements
        5. Tribal and peasant revolts: Raamji Gond, Kumaram Bheemu
        6. Telangana peasant armed struggle - police action and the end of Nizam rule
    2. Overview of Indian Constitution and politics
      1.  Evolution of Indian constitution - Nature and salient features - Preamble
      2. Fundamental Rights - Directive principles of state policy - fundamental duties
      3. Distinctive feature of Indian federalism - Distribution of Legislative and administrative powers between Union and states
      4. Union and State governments - President - Prime minister and council of ministers; Governor, Chief minister and council of ministers - powers and functions
      5. Rural and urban governance with special reference to 73rd and 74th amendments
      6. Electoral system: free and fair elections, Malpractices; Election commission; Electoral reforms and political policies
      7. Judicial system in India - Judicial Activism
        1. Special provisions for scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, backward class, women and minorities
        2. Welfare mechanism for enforcement - National commission for scheduled castes, National commission for scheduled tribes and National commission for backward classes
      8. Indian constitution: New challenges
    3. Social  structures, issues and Public Policies
      1.  Indian Social Structure
        1. Salient features of Indian society: Caste, Family, Marriage, Kinship, Religion, Tribe, Women, Middle class - Socio cultural features of Telangana Society
      2. Social Issues
        1. Inequality and Exclusion: Casteism, Communalism, Regionalism, Violence against women, Child labour, Human trafficking, Disability and aged
      3. Social Movements
        1. Peasant's Movement
        2. Tribal movement
        3. Backward class movement
        4. Dalit movements
        5. Women's movements
        6. Regional autonomy movements
        7. Human rights movements
      4. Telangana specific social issues 
        1. Vetti, Jogini, Devadasi system
        2. Child labour
        3. Girl child
        4. Flourosis
        5. Migration
        6. Farmer's and Weaver's distress
      5. Social policies and welfare programmes
        1. Affirmative policies fr SCs, STs, OBC, women, minorities, labour, disabled and children; 
        2. Welfare programmes : Employment, Poverty Alleviation programmes
        3. Rural and urban, women and child welfare, tribal welfare
  3. Paper III: Economy and Development

    1.  Indian Economy: Issues and Challenges
      1. Growth and development: Concepts of growth and development - Relationship between growth and development
      2. Measures of economic growth: National income - definition, methods and concets of measuring national income, Nominal and real income
      3. Poverty and unemployment: Concepts of poverty - income based poverty and non-income based poverty, measurement of poverty; Unemployment - Definition, types of unemployment
      4. Planning in Indian economy: Objectives, priorities, strategies and achievements of five year plans - 12th FYP, Inclusive growth - NITI Aayog
    2. Economy and Development of  Telangana
      1.  Telangana Economy in undivided Andhra Pradesh (1956 - 2014) - Derivations (water bachavat committee), Finances (Lalit, Bhargava, Wanchu committees) and employment (Jai Bharat Committee, Girgilan committee) and under development
      2. Land reforms in Telangana
    3. Issues of development and change
      1.  Development dynamics: Regional inequalities in India - Social inequalities - caste, ethnicity, gender and religion, migration, urbanisation
      2. Development and displacement: Land acquisition policy, resettlement and rehabilitation
      3. Economic reforms: growth, poverty and inequalities, Social development (education and health), Social transformation, social security
      4. Sustainable development, Concept and measurement, Sustainable development goals
  4. Paper IV: Telangana Movement and State Formation

    1.  Idea of Telangana (1948 - 1970)
      1. Historical background
        1.  Telangana as a distinctive cultural unit in Hyderabad princely state
        2. Geographical, economical, socio-political, cultural features of Telangana
        3. People of Telangana, Caste, Tribes, religion, arts, crafts, languages, dialects, fairs, festivals and important places
        4. Administration in Hyderabad princely states
        5. Administrative reforms of Salar Jung
        6. Origins of the issues of the Mulkis, Non-Mulkis
        7. Employment and Civil services rules under Mir Osman ALi Khan
        8. VII Nizam's Farmanof 1919
        9. Definition of Mulki - Establishment of Nizam's subjects league known as Mulki league 1935 and its significance
        10. Merger of Hyderabad state into Indian Union 1948
        11. Employment policies under military rule and Vellodi 1948-52
        12. Violation of Mulki rules and its implications
      2. Hyderabad state in independent India
        1.  Formation of popular ministry under Buragala Ramakrishna Rao
        2. 1952 Mulki agitation
        3. Demand for employment of local people
        4. City college incident - its importance
        5. Justice Jagan Mohan Reddy committee report, 1953 - Initial debates and demands for Telangana State
        6. Reasons fr the formation of states reorganisation commission(SRC) under Fazal Ali in 1953
        7. Main Provisions under the recommendations of SRC
        8. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar's views on SRC and Smaller states
      3. Formation of Andhra Pradesh: 1956
        1.  Gentleman's Agreement - Provisions and recommendations
        2. Telangana regional committee, Composition, functions and performance - violation of safeguards
        3. Migration from coastal Andhra region and is consequences 
        4. Post 1970 development scenario in Telangana - Agriculture, power, irrigation, education, employment, medical and health etc.
      4. Violation of employment and service rules
        1.  Origins of Telangana agitation
        2. Protest in Kothagudem and other places
        3. Fast unto death by Ravindranth
        4. 1969 agitation for separate Telangana
        5. Role of intellectuals, students, employees in Jai Telangana movement
      5. Formation of Telangana Praja Samiti and course of movement
        1.  The spread of Telangana movement - Major events, leaders and personalities
        2. All party accord - GO 36
        3. Suppression of Telangana movement and its consequences
        4. The eight point and five point formula and its implications
    2. Mobilisation phase (1971-90)
      1. Court judgements on Mulki rules
        1. Jai Andhra Movement and its consequences
        2. Six point formula 1973 and its provisions
        3. Article 371D, Presidential order 1975
        4. Officers (Jayabarath Reddy) committee report GO 610, 1985 - Provisions nd violations, Reaction and representation of Telangana empoyees
      2. Rise and spread of Naxalite movement - causes and consequences
        1. Anti landlord struggles in Jagityala - Siricilla, North Telangana
        2. Rytu cooli sanghams
        3. Alienation of tribal lands and Adivasi resistance - Jal, Jungle and Zamin
      3.  Rise of regional parties in 1980s
        1. Changes in Political, socio economic, and cultural fabric of Telangana
        2. Notion of Telugu Jati and suppression of Telangana Identity
        3. Expansion of new economy in Hyderabad and other parts of Telangana
        4. Real estate, finance contracts, film industry, media, contracts and entertainment industry; corporate education and hospitals
        5. Dominant culture and its implications for Telangana Self-respect, dialect, language and culture
      4. Liberalisation and Privatisation policies in 1990s and their consequences
        1. Emergence of regional disparities and imbalances in political power, administration, education, employment
        2. Agrarian crisis and decline of handicrafts in Telangana and its impact in Telangana society and its economy
      5. Quest for Telangana Indentity
        1. Intellectual discussions and debates
        2. Political and ideological efforts
        3. Growth of popular unrest against regional disparities, discrimination and under development of Telangana
    3. Towards the formation of Telangana State
      1. Public awakening and intellectual reaction against discrimination
        1.  Formation of civil society organisation
        2. Articulation of separate Telangana identity
        3. Initial organisations raised the issues of separate Telangana
        4. Telangana formation trust - Telangana Aikya Vedika
        5. Bhuvanagiri sabha
        6. Telangana Jana sabha
        7. Telangana Maha Sabha
        8. Warangal declaration, Telangana Vidyarthula Vedika
        9. Efforts of Telangana Congress and BJP in highlighting the issues
      2. Establishment of Telangana Rashtra Samiti in 2001
        1.  Political realignment and electoral alliances in 2004
        2. Later phase of Telangana movement - TRS in UPA
        3. Girgliani committee
        4. Telangana employees joint action committee
        5. Pranab Mukherjee committee 2009 - Election, alliances, Telangana in Elections manifesto
        6. The agitation against Hyderabad as free zone and demand for separate statehood
        7. Fast unto death by K Chandra Sekhar Rao
        8. Formation of political joint action committee 2009
      3. Role of political parties
        1.  TRS, Congress, BJP, Left parties, TDP, MIM and other political parties
        2. Dalit Bahujan sanghams and Grass root movement organisations
        3. Other joint action committees and popular protests
        4. Suicides for the cause of Telangana
      4. Cultural revivalism in Telangana
        1.  Other symbolic expressions in Telangana Movement
        2. Literary forms - performing arts and other cultural expression - writers, poets, singers, intellectuals, artists, journalists, artists, employees, advocates, doctors, NRIs, women, civil society groups, organised and unorganised sectors, caste, communities, and other social groups in transforming the agitation into a mass movement
        3. Forms of protest and major events - Sakalajanula Samme, Non-cooperation movement, Million March
      5. Parliamentary process
        1.  UPA government's stand on Telangana, All-party meeting
        2. Anthony committee - statements on Telangana by central home minister
        3. Sri Krishna Committee report and its recommendations
        4. AP assembly and parliamentary proceedings on Telangana
        5. Declaration of Telangana state in Parliament
        6. Andhra Pradesh state reorganisation act 2014
        7. Elections and victory of Telangana Rashtra Samiti
        8. The first government of Telangana State
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27 May 2015

Impact of Himalayan mountains on the History of India

India – Geographical features and their Impact on History of India

  1. Geographical Features of India

    The study of history can't be without Geography. This is same when discussing the History of India. One should know a brief about Indian geography and how it had its impact on the chronology of India. Two important things decide the history of a country. They are Geography and Chronology and also the environment of the region. Physical geography and environmental conditions include climate, soil types, water resources and other topographical features. Under topographical conditions comes, settlement patterns, population spread, food products, human behaviour and dietary habits of a region.
    • Indian Subcontinent

      Indian subcontinent is broadly discussed under three heads. They are
      • Himalayan Mountins
      • Indo-Gangetic Plain
      • Southern peninsula 
      Indian subcontinent comprises of five countries. They are India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan. Among these five countries, India is the largest country with 28 states and 6 Union Territories. 
    According to the 2011 census, the population of India is 121 crores.

  2. Himalayan Mountains and their Impact on Indian History

    Himalayan mountains, one of the important geographical features of India. They bring a name to India because of their many features. Himalayas play an important role in the history of India. For many years, they stood as barriers obstructing many harsh climatic conditions reaching India and also interrupted many invasions from the outside India. Because of their beauty and heights, they attracted many mountaineering and pilgrims to India. Even today, they are forming a great barrier between the Plateau of Tibet to the north and the alluvial plains of Indian subcontinent to the south.
    • Brief account of Himalayas

      • The name HIMALAYA is a Sanskrit word meaning HIMA means Snow; ALAYA means abode.
      • They extend to the north of India.
      • They start from the extreme northwest of India, the Pamir, towards the northeast.
      • They have a length of 2560 km, and an average breadth of 240 to 320 km.
      • The highest peak in the Himalayas is Mount Everest which extends to a height of 8869 m. This acts s the natural barrier and protects the country from cold arctic winds blowing from Siberia through Central Asia.
    • Role of Himalayan passes and valleys in Indian history

      It is understood that for a long time, the Himalayas protected India from invasions. 
      • Himalayan passes in the northwest, Khyber, Bolan, Kurram, Gomal – provided easy routes between India and China.
      • They are situated in the – Hindukush, Sulaiman and Kirthr Himalayan ranges.
      • The Indo-Aryans, The Indo-Greeks, Parthians, Sakas, Kushanas, Hunas and Turks entered India through these Himalayan passes.
      • In this region, Swat valley is another important route, through which Alexander of Macedon entered India. 
        Swat valley
      • Through these routes merchants, invading missionaries, armies came to India.
      • These routes provided trade and cultural contacts between India and China.
      Karakoram range is in the north of Kashmir. The second highest peak in the Himalayas Mount Godwin Austen is situated in this range. 
      Kashmir valley is surrounded by high mountains and remains unique for its culture and tradition.
      Nepal too is a small valley under the foot of Himalayas, accessible through the gangetinc plains through the passes.
      Himalayas extend up to Assam in the east. There PatKoi, Nagai and Lushai ranges are the important mountains. They are covered with thick forests and are extremely difficult to cross and so these parts remained in isolation.


  • Indian subcontinent divided into three geographical divisions. They are 
  • Himalayan mountains
  • Indo-Gangetic plains
  • Peninsular India

  • Indian subcontinent ha five countries – India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan.
  • Himalayas – length: 2560 km; breadth: 340 to 320 km;
  • Highest peak Everest protects from cold Arctic winds from Siberia.
  • Northwest passes – Khyber, Bolan, Kurram, Gomal; present in Hindukush, Sulaiman and Kirthar ranges.
  • Through Swat valley, Alexande of Macedon reached India, which is in the northwest.
  • Mount Godwin Austen – second highest peak; in Karakoram range north of Kashmir.
  • East of Assam – Pat Koi, Nagai, Lushai ranges; Very dangerous forests are present making travel impossible.
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