28 March 2014

Disasters & Management


Disasters and Management


Definition of Disasters:

  • A sudden destructive event that seriously disturbs the functioning of a community or society and causes human, material, economic and environmental loses that exceeds the community's or society's ability to cope using it's own resources.
  • Any happening that causes damage, ecological disruption, loss of human life, deterioration of health and health services on a scale sufficient to warrant an extra ordinary response from outside the affected community or area.
Emergency and disaster not only affect the health and well being of the people, frequently large number of people are displaced, killed or injured or subjected to greater risk of epidemics.
Considerable economic harm is also common.
Disasters cause great harm to the existing environment and threaten the future of sustainable development.
Morbidity resulting from a disaster can be classified into four types:
  • Injuries
  • Emotional stress
  • Epidemic of disease and
  • Increase in Indigenous  diseases

Types of Disasters:

Disasters are classified into two types.
They are:
  1. Natural Disasters and
  2. Man made Disasters
Natural Disasters:
Natural disasters are those which are a result of natural consequences. They are also some times described as an act of god. These are naturally occurring phenomenon by rapid or slow onset events.
The natural disasters are categorized under the following heads. They include 
  • GEOPHYSICAL: Earthquakes, Land slides, Tsunami, Volcano.
  • HYDRO-LOGICAL: Avalanche, Floods.
  • CLIMATE: Excess heat, Drought, Wild fires.
  • BIOLOGICAL: Epidemics and Plague of diseases.
  • METEOROLOGICAL: Cyclones, Storms.
Man made Disasters:
Disasters that are a result from the human activity are called man made disasters. They are also called anthropogenic disasters.
They include:
  • Crimes
  • Arson – Willful or malicious
  • Riots
  • Terrorism
  • War
  • Industrial Hazards – Chemical or gas poisoning
  • Accidents - Road, Rail, Air, Water Transport
  • Structural collapses – Bridges or Buildings
  • Fire accidents
  • Radiation
  • CBRN – Chemical Biological Radiation and Nuclear
  • Oil spills
  • Massacres

Disasters in India:

India has vast population and unique geographical characteristics and so is one of the world's most disaster prone countries.

India prone to:

55% - Earthquakes; 
12% to Floods; 
8% to Cyclones;
70% land under farming - to Droughts.
Natural disasters:
Natural hazards in India commonly include cyclones, earthquakes, droughts, floods or landslides. 

  • East coast of India is prone to cyclones.
  • Interior of the plateau and Himalayas – earthquakes.
  • Ganga-Brahmaputra plains – Floods.
  • Rajasthan and western parts of Orissa and some areas in South India are prone to droughts.
Man made disasters:
Because of the huge population of India, it is facing many problems like population explosion, depletion of resources, unemployment and so on. Among those problems, disasters are also included. More place for man made disasters in India, like terrorism, accidents, massacres and riots.

Disaster Management:

Disaster management includes the range of activities designed to mitigate the effects of disasters and emergency situations and to provide a framework for helping people at-risk to avoid or recover from the impact of disaster.Disaster management includes measures that are to be taken before, during and after the disaster and involves preparedness, mitigation, response and recovery.
There are three fundamental aspects of disaster management.
They include:
  • Disaster response
  • Disaster preparedness and
  • Disaster mitigation
Management Sequence of a sudden onset disaster
29th October is National day for Disaster reduction.

Disaster Preparedness:

This means Preparing for a disaster prior to its occurrence. Preparedness is a programme of long term development activities whose goals are to strengthen the overall capacity and capability of a country to manage efficiently all types of emergencies.
Its objective is to ensure that appropriate systems, procedures and resources are in place to provide prompt effective assistance to disaster victims, thus facilitating relief measures and rehabilitation of services.

Disaster Response:

The second phase of disaster management cycle, occurring after the incidence of a disaster. The greatest need for emergency care occurs in the first few hours. Disaster response consists of elements like search, rescue, first aid, field care, triage and stabilization of victims, Hospital treatment and redistribution of patients to other hospitals if necessary. Providing immediate assistance, assessing damage, Restoration are also the elements of disaster preparedness. 
The aim of Disaster response is to provide immediate assistance to maintain life improve health and support the morale of the affected population.

Disaster Mitigation:

Emergency prevention and mitigation(=relieve; to make less severe or painful) involves measures designed either to prevent hazards from causing emergency or to lessen the likely effects of emergencies. These works include flood mitigation works, appropriate land use planning, improved building codes, and reduction or protection of vulnerable population and structures.

International Agencies providing Humanitarian Services:

Many agencies Nationally and internationally work for the health and humanitarian services, providing necessary needs and facilities to the needy.
Some such agencies are:
  • OCHA – United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
  • WHO – World Health Organization
  • WFP – World Food Programme
  • FAO – Food and Agricultural Organization
The above said agencies work under United Nations Organization.
Some Inter-Governmental organizations:
  • ECHO – European Community Humanitarian Office
  • OAS – Organization of American states
  • Caribbean Disaster Emergency Response Agency and so on.
Some Non governmental:
  • IFRC – International Federation of Red cross and Red Crescent Societies
  • CARE
  • International Committee of Red Cross
  • International Council of Voluntary Agencies and Many more

Recollect:
  • Natural and man made disasters
  • Disaster Management: Preparedness; Response and Mitigation
  • 29th October - National Day for Disaster Reduction
  • Humanitarian Agencies - UNO; WHO; FAO; IFRC; ECHO; WFP and others

More Details in Depth in the coming days.......

That's All for now. See you later.
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23 March 2014

Introduction to Indian Economy

Introduction to Indian Economy


Indian Economy:

Indian economy is the fastest and the largest growing economy. But unfortunately, we are also the poorest because of the huge population. Mumbai is considered the commercial capital of India. Even today majority of people in India depend directly or indirectly on agriculture.


Pre-British rule:

Before British conquered India, India is well developed with rich culture, heritage and prosperity. It is estimated to be from Indus Valley civilization to 1700 AD. During that time there were good trade relations. Each region, each village were independent economically. Different communities like artisans, agriculturists, village officers coexisted. They together worked on the village issues. 
During this time, India is a rich source for different raw materials. Silk, woolen fabrics, artistic items like wooden and stone carvings, brass and copper ware, jewelry, condiments and sundries like cardamon, cinnamon, pepper, cloves, saffron and others like opium, indigo, licorice and blue were found in large numbers in India. All there goods are exported to the foreign countries. 

Europe is the largest consumer of Indian goods during 17th and 18th century.


During British:

Europeans came as traders to India in 1600 AD. They captured power in 1757 AD. They got the complete power by Sepoy mutiny in 1857. British conquest of India coincided with the Industrial revolution in England during 1780-1820. The industrial revolution brought radical changes in manufacture, agriculture, and developing infrastructure and goods. This needs raw materials and there is a huge demand for those raw materials. The Britishers made India, the place and source for raw materials. 
So they started buying raw materials from India at cheaper rates and sold the finished goods ant high prices in the Indian market. This caused a huge problem in Indian economy and depletion of Indian resources. There was continuous exploitation of economic resources and mineral wealth. 

D R Gadgil called this as economic drain.Dadabhai Naoroji called this Plunder of Economic wealth.


Post British:

After British left India, it is the time for Indians to restructure the Indian economy. Many intellectuals struggled hard and planned many ways out of that depletion, which British had left for us.
Then started restructuring economy by formulation different policies and schemes. Five year plans were a milestone in Indian economy. There started industrialization and development of agriculture. Economic liberalization in India began by Manmohan Singh in 1991. Various forms were introduced in Indian Economy. Modified land tenure system was introduced which was an important source of revenue. Improved irrigation system, transport and creation of railways took place. 
Economic consequences of integration of British India into the world:Commercialization of agricultureDevelopment of plantation, jute and other agro based industries.

Milestones of Indian Economy:

  • Planning in India - Five year plans
  • Licence Raj or Permit Raj by Jawaharlal Nehru
  • Reforms in India
  • Economic liberalization by Manmohan Singh and then Finance minister P V Narasima Rao in 1991
  • 10th largest in the world by nominal GDP  
  • 3rd  largest in purchasing power parity
  • One of G-20 major economies
  • Member of BRICS
  • FDI in India - strength in telecommunication, IT and other areas
  • Bull run started since 2003
  • Nationalization of Banks
  • MGNREGA - India job guarantee act - August 25, 2005
  • Panchayat Raj and economic development

Sectors in Indian Economy:

Indian economy was divided into sectors to make administration and organization easy.
Main sectors include three - Primary, Secondary and Tertiary.
But there are originally many sectors, which are categorized under those three sectors, to make things break up without much trouble.

Some of those are:
  • Agriculture
  • Industries
  • Textiles
  • Services
  • Retail
  • Tourism
  • Mining
  • Banking and Finance
  • Energy and Power
  • Infrastructure
  • Global Trade
  • FDI

Comprehensive:

  • India - Third largest in purchasing power
  • Economic exploitation of British: D R Gadgil called it 'Economic Drain'; and Dadabhai Naoroji called it 'Plunder of Economic Wealth'
  • Modified land tenure system - Important source of revenue
  • Economic liberaliation by Manmohan Singh in 1991
  • MGNREGA started on August 25, 2005
  • Licence Raj or Permit Raj by Jawaharlal Nehru

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21 March 2014

The Constitution of India - Exordium



The Constitution of India - Exordium

Did you ever thought, What if we don't have a Constitution? How all the systems will work without a constitution? How the law and order in our states and our country be implemented?

Why a Constitution?

Even small institutions or companies work following some rules and regulations, some values and principles. If so, why not our huge country, India?
To make the functioning of our country systematic, after our independence, many brilliant brains and intellectuals worked for almost three years to formulate rules and laws for the working of India. We call it the Constitution of India.
Constitution is essential for every democratic country. Our country, India is the world's largest democracy. Government of our country works under certain special acts. They are required to decide how government should perform its functions. One such special act of the state is the Constitution.
Every country needs a constitution. Government in that country is formed and framed according to it. The constitution is a volume of rules and regulations which determine the nature of the state and the system of government.


During the British Rule:

Before we got independence from the hands of the British, our country was under the central authority of the crown. During that time, we don't have any constitution. But, the British rulers ruled us as per their rules and regulations, which don't coincide with the aspirations of the Indians. Those rules were framed by the British for their own benefits. 
As per the time and demand, they formulated many rules, acts and laws.  From among all those, The government of India Act, 1935 has an important role. Our present day constitution to some extent resembles, The Government of India act, 1935. We will discuss about these in the coming days.

When British transfered the power to the Indians, India was constituted by 564 states. Some leaders took up the task of uniting those states, and the role of Sardar Vallabhabhai Patel was important among them. During that time, leaders formed committees to discuss and bring out the constitution. In drafting the constitution of India, the name of Benegal Narsingh Rau, should be noted. Rau prepared a draft Constitution in October 1947. This draft was considered by the drafting committee.


Pt. Nehru on November 30, 1953, made a obituary reference to Rau in Lok Sabha in which he stated: “He was intimately connected with the Constitution-making and he might well be called one of the principal architects of our Constitution.”

There are many leaders who struggled and lost themselves for the sake of the shaping our country, whose names are still in the dark. Who takes the blame???


Constituent Assembly:

A need for constituent assembly to design a suitable form of government was felt after the India got Independence. The Cripps Mission, 1942 proposed to set up a constituent assembly for the first time to prepare the Indian constitution. Elections to the constituent assembly were held in July 1946. It had 292 elected members by the provincial legislative assemblies, and 93 members nominated from the native states. 

Important persons among its members - Dr. Rajendra pradsad, Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Vallabhabhai Patel, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Dr. KM Munshi, Dr. Shyam Pradsad Mukherjee, Baldev Singh, Dr. Ambedkar, Dr. Sarvepalli Radha Krishnan, Alladi Krishna Swamy Ayyar, Smt. Sarojini Naidu, Dr. Vijayalakshmi Pandit and others.

The constituent assembly met for the first time on 9th December 1946 and elected Rajendra Prasad as its president. The constituent assembly worked for about 3 years to prepare the constitution of India. Our constitution was born not from the sole ideas, ideals and aspirations of our people, but parts of it were taken from different sources, from the constitutions of different countries, which we will discuss later.


Drafting Committee:

The constituent assembly in the process of framing the constitution of India, formed many committees. One such committee was the Drafting committee. It was constituted on 29th August 1947, with BR Ambedkar as its chairman. It had 8 members. It prepared the draft constitution by February 1948. Lot of discussions on drafting committee and many amendments took place. Finally the revised constitution was approved by the constituent assembly on 26th November 1949. The Constituent Assembly took two years, eleven months and eighteen days for preparing the constitution. It came into force on 26th January, 1950. Our country became sovereign, democratic, republic from that day. Since then, we celebrate every year, that day as the Republic day.

Constitution of India:

Constitution is a special act specifying how government should perform its functions for the welfare of the citizens. The constitution of India is the lengthiest written constitution in the world.
India, also known as Bharat, is a Union of States. It is a Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic with a parliamentary system of government. The Republic is governed in terms of the Constitution of India which was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26th November, 1949 and came into force on 26th January, 1950. The Constitution provides for a Parliamentary form of government which is federal in structure with certain unitary features. The constitutional head of the Executive of the Union is the President. 

Our constitution reflects our people's aims, aspirations and ideals. It safeguards their rights and symbolizes their liberty. 

Except for Israel, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, most of the democratic countries of the world possess a written constitution. 

Summary:

  • India is the world's largest democracy.
  • Our present day constitution to some extent resembles, the Government of India act, 1935.
  • The Cripps Mission, 1942 proposed to set up a constituent assembly for the first time to prepare the Indian constitution.
  • Drafting committee was constituted on 29th August 1947, with BR Ambedkar as its chairman.
  • It came into force on 26th January, 1950. We celebrate every year, that day as the Republic day.
  • India is a Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic with a parliamentary system of government.
  • Indian Government is federal in structure with certain unitary features.
  • Except for Israel, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, most of the democratic countries of the world possess a written constitution.
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20 March 2014

Rise of National Consciousness



Rise of National Consciousness

Rise of National Consciousness:

Indian National movement starts with the rise of national consciousness among Indians. There are many factors and happenings that made our people to think, so that we can be free. Literally, this consciousness emerged in 1858, after the 1857 revolt. Though the revolt was a failure, it injected confidence and courage into the people of India, and the same made the Britishers to think that, Indians are powerful.

Some Nationalism awakening acts:


  • Benal - Annual Hindu Mela - Gopal Mitra
  • Maharashtra - Ganapati fest and SHivaji utsav - Tilak
  • Swami Dayanda Saraswati - Patriotic feeling among his followers
  • Vivekanada' triumphant tour to USA - 1894 - Chicago - created self confidence among Indians.

The real organized effect to achieve the political, social and economic liberty was felt only after the emergence of Indian National Congress.

Now, let's see those a little more expanded.

Chief Factors of Influence:

There are many factors that led to the emergence of National consciousness among the Indians. If you pick out the chief factors, they get listed as follows:
  • Political unification of the country.
  • Introduction of English into the educational system.
  • Economic exploitation.
  • Reform Movements of the  19th century.
  • Development of transport, communication and infrastructure.
  • Growth of Indian press and Vernacular language printing.
  • Role of early Indian political associations.

Political Unification:

Before British ruled India, our country was just comprised of some hundreds and hundreds of small and individual kingdoms ruled by selfish kings and rulers. A collage of selfish kingdoms.
But when outsiders came to our land and started ruling us, they started realizing that we all belongs to the same land.
  • After the revolt of 1857, political unification was achieved in 1858.
  • That is the time when India came under the center authority of the crown.
Like at present, when India is under the central authority, the system of administration, the rules and laws to be followed, and the practices of the government will be the same to every part and each person in the country. This uniform of system of administration brought Indians under a common surface.

Education and English:

Education has its marked role in the emergence of national consciousness among the Indians. 
During the crown rule in India, many changes were brought in the educational, administration, transport and communication systems in India.


  • One such change is Introduction of English int the educational institutions.
  • This made a common medium for the Indians and the Britishers.
  • By the introduction of English, it became easy to share ideas and aspirations for liberty.
  • English also formed a bridge among Indians from different language backgrounds, thus uniting them for the rise of national movement.
  • And with the introduction of English, communications among Indians and others also increased.

Communication, Transport and Press:

Communication, Transport, Press are some three important things on this earth, without which life becomes impossible. It is also the fact that these three played the major role in the Indian national movement and gain India's independence. It is no surprise, if we say without these, India will never be independent. Yes, it is true!!
  • Modern infrastructure into India was brought by the British, to assist their own needs and interests.
  • They brought communication and transport to India, to serve their own economic ease.
  • The modern infrastructure introduced was Railways, Telegraph, Postal system, development of roads and motor transport.
  • Railways began in 1853.
  • Railways brought economic integration.
  • By the communication and transport methods, different places and different villages in India were interconnected. This reduced isolation and abandoning of villages and far away places.
  • With the introduction and increase in transport, there resulted in the increase in the national trade in India.

Press: In the national movement, press and printing of literature in vernaculars gave a boost to the patriotism among the Indians. Spiritual unity by the reformers also showed a great binding force on the minds of the people.

Economic Awareness among Indians:

Economic awareness is a crucial part among Indian, that made them realize the economic exploitation of the British, and think for self rule and struggle for freedom. The work of some Prominent Indians is to be remembered, that brought about economic consciousness among the Indians.
  • This economic consciousness was brought about in the second half of the  19th century. 
  • It truly started to began after 1860.
  • Economic criticism of British rule of the Indian intellectuals made people realize the selfish character of the colonial domination.
  • Ruins caused by the worst famines from 1866 to 1901 made the people of India to understand deep about the progress and success of the British rule and their exploitation towards Indians. This made people of India to starve and suffer misery.
  • There came economic analysis by the prominent Indians, who carried out extensive study of British rule during 1875-1905. They focused especially on economic development. They include –
    • Dadabhai Naororji – studied extensively on poverty and brought up his Drain of wealth theory.
    • RC Dutt – formulated three themes. Studied in depth about the economy during the colonial rule from 1757. His three themes include –
      • Destruction of handicrafts
      • Hindrances to modern Indian industry
      • Excessive land revenue burdens
    • Justice Mahadev Ranade – need for modern Indian development.
    • All together with GV Joshi, Subramaniya Iyer, GK Gokhale, and PC Ray –  traced the process of colonization of the Indian economy and concluded that colonialism was the main hurdle to India’s economic development.

Political Consciousness:

  • In the administration system, there were no Indian officers, all the power vested with the British. 
  • In 1861, few Indians were nominated to the supreme councils, but their powers were reduced.
  • Lord Ripon introduced local self government, with an idea to divide the power and decentralize it.
  • Indians suffered, despite of higher education, they landed up into work that are below their proficiency.
  • Almost all the posts in Indian Civil Services were occupied by Europeans.
  • Indians in the army were never promoted to a higher rank.
  • Thus, Indians faced political suppression during the British rule.
And During the time of Rise of national consciousness among the Indians, this is also the time for the British to suppress the consciousness and continue their domination and rule over Indians. So they started the policy of divide and rule. They created hatred among people of India in the name of caste, religion and region. 
In spite of all the efforts of the British, Now we are Independent. India is a free country under the hands of no one.

Phases of National Movement:

The Indian National movement is divided into three phases.
  • First - After evolution of Indian national congress - moderates movement; realization of national goals.
  • Second - using political weapons - boycott; resistances; demonstrations.
  • Third - Gandhian ideology; non violence; non co-operation; civil disobedience.
Freedom in 1947.

Summary:

  • 1858 - crown rule
  • railways in 1853
  • Bakim chandra Chatarjee - Anandmath in 1882 -Vandemataram hymn
  • 1866 to 1901 - devastating famines
  • Dadabhai Naoroji - Drain of wealth
  • RC Dutta - Destruction of handicrafts; Hindrances to modern Indian Industry; Excessive land revenue burdens.
  • Justice Mahadev Ranade - Industrial development.
  • Local self government - Lord Ripon.
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19 March 2014

India - A brief shot

India - A brief shot



India:

  • India is the biggest democratic country in the world
.

  • It is a land of different social cultural contrasts.
  • It is marked by unity in diversity.
  • It is a country of great geographical extent.
  • It is described as a sub continent.

  • The Name: India

    • The name INDIA is derived from the great Sindhu/Indus river in the North West part of the country.
    • Greeks used to call the people around Sindhu as Indoi.
    • Gradually it developed to India, which the Britishers used to call those people.
    • And India is also called by another name called BHARAT.
    • This name is taken from the great ruler of India, Bharat in the ancient times.

    Diversified Physio-graphic Conditions:

    • North - Snow capped Himalayan mountains.
    • Middle - Vast Indo Gangetic plain.
    • West - Plateaus in the peninsula as well as the dry desert sands on the west.
    • South - Coastal plains on the Indian Ocean Shores.

    Climate:

    • Overall Monsoon type of climate.
    • But many variations in climatic conditions can be seen.

    Major Latitude:

    • Tropic of Cancer runs half way through the country.
    • Southern half experiences tropical climate.
    • Northern half belongs to warm temperate zone.

    Soils:

    • A variety of soils are distributed through out the land of India.
    • Types of soils that can be found are - Alluvial soils, Black soils, Red soils and Laterite soils.

    Religions:

    • In India we can see huge number of castes, religions, creed, race, cultures, practices and many more.
    • India is a diversified country.
    • All living on the same land.
    • That is why India is regarded a Unity in Diversity.

    Summary:

    • Physio-graphic conditions: Himalayas, Indo gangetic plain, Peninsular plateau, dry desert sands, coastal plains. 
    • Animal-Crop-Mineral: Cattle, buffaloes; paddy, wheat; iron, manganese etc. 
    • Religions: Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Islam, Chrisanity. Cultures: Aryan, Dravidian.
    • Rivers: Ganga, Brahmaputra, Godavari, Krishna. 
    • Climate: Tropical Monsoon, Warm temperate.
    • Soils: Alluvial, Black, Red and Laterite soils.
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