27 May 2015

Impact of Himalayan mountains on the History of India

India – Geographical features and their Impact on History of India

  1. Geographical Features of India

    The study of history can't be without Geography. This is same when discussing the History of India. One should know a brief about Indian geography and how it had its impact on the chronology of India. Two important things decide the history of a country. They are Geography and Chronology and also the environment of the region. Physical geography and environmental conditions include climate, soil types, water resources and other topographical features. Under topographical conditions comes, settlement patterns, population spread, food products, human behaviour and dietary habits of a region.
    • Indian Subcontinent

      Indian subcontinent is broadly discussed under three heads. They are
      • Himalayan Mountins
      • Indo-Gangetic Plain
      • Southern peninsula 
      Indian subcontinent comprises of five countries. They are India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan. Among these five countries, India is the largest country with 28 states and 6 Union Territories. 
    According to the 2011 census, the population of India is 121 crores.

  2. Himalayan Mountains and their Impact on Indian History

    Himalayan mountains, one of the important geographical features of India. They bring a name to India because of their many features. Himalayas play an important role in the history of India. For many years, they stood as barriers obstructing many harsh climatic conditions reaching India and also interrupted many invasions from the outside India. Because of their beauty and heights, they attracted many mountaineering and pilgrims to India. Even today, they are forming a great barrier between the Plateau of Tibet to the north and the alluvial plains of Indian subcontinent to the south.
    • Brief account of Himalayas

      • The name HIMALAYA is a Sanskrit word meaning HIMA means Snow; ALAYA means abode.
      • They extend to the north of India.
      • They start from the extreme northwest of India, the Pamir, towards the northeast.
      • They have a length of 2560 km, and an average breadth of 240 to 320 km.
      • The highest peak in the Himalayas is Mount Everest which extends to a height of 8869 m. This acts s the natural barrier and protects the country from cold arctic winds blowing from Siberia through Central Asia.
    • Role of Himalayan passes and valleys in Indian history

      It is understood that for a long time, the Himalayas protected India from invasions. 
      • Himalayan passes in the northwest, Khyber, Bolan, Kurram, Gomal – provided easy routes between India and China.
      • They are situated in the – Hindukush, Sulaiman and Kirthr Himalayan ranges.
      • The Indo-Aryans, The Indo-Greeks, Parthians, Sakas, Kushanas, Hunas and Turks entered India through these Himalayan passes.
      • In this region, Swat valley is another important route, through which Alexander of Macedon entered India. 
        Swat valley
      • Through these routes merchants, invading missionaries, armies came to India.
      • These routes provided trade and cultural contacts between India and China.
      Karakoram range is in the north of Kashmir. The second highest peak in the Himalayas Mount Godwin Austen is situated in this range. 
      Kashmir valley is surrounded by high mountains and remains unique for its culture and tradition.
      Nepal too is a small valley under the foot of Himalayas, accessible through the gangetinc plains through the passes.
      Himalayas extend up to Assam in the east. There PatKoi, Nagai and Lushai ranges are the important mountains. They are covered with thick forests and are extremely difficult to cross and so these parts remained in isolation.


  • Indian subcontinent divided into three geographical divisions. They are 
  • Himalayan mountains
  • Indo-Gangetic plains
  • Peninsular India

  • Indian subcontinent ha five countries – India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan.
  • Himalayas – length: 2560 km; breadth: 340 to 320 km;
  • Highest peak Everest protects from cold Arctic winds from Siberia.
  • Northwest passes – Khyber, Bolan, Kurram, Gomal; present in Hindukush, Sulaiman and Kirthar ranges.
  • Through Swat valley, Alexande of Macedon reached India, which is in the northwest.
  • Mount Godwin Austen – second highest peak; in Karakoram range north of Kashmir.
  • East of Assam – Pat Koi, Nagai, Lushai ranges; Very dangerous forests are present making travel impossible.
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