30 January 2016

Satavahanas - Socio cultural conditions in Ancient Telngana

Satavahanas in Telangana

Satavahanas succeeded Nandas, Mauryas, Sungas and Kanvas. Satavahanas came to rule after Mauryan Empire. They ruled for about 400 years. According to Matsya Purana there were 29 Satavahana rulers. Satavahanas were also called Salivahanas or Satakarnis. Inscriptions represent them as the earliest rulers making grants in cash and land to the Buddhist monks and brahmins. In Ashoka inscriptions the Andhras are mentioned as border people.

Rulers with much or little importance among all the Satavahana rulers were Simukha, Pulumavi I, Hala, Gautamiputra Satakarni are some.


Simukha

  • Simukha was the founder of the Satavahana dynasty.
  • He unified various Andhra territories ruled from BC 271 to BC 248.
  • Dharanikota near Amaravati, Guntur district was the first capital of Simukha. Later he shifted his capital to Pratistana in Aurangabad district.
Satakarni II is the sixth ruler of the satavahana dynasty extended to west by conquering Malwa (parts of Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan). He ruled for 56 years. After him eight rulers came and went with no much notable achievement.

Pulumavi I came to throne and brought down Susarman and occupied Magadha. By this Satavahanas became all India's imperial rulers.

After him the rulers were weak and were driven by Sakas out of Maharashtra (Pratisthana, capital of Simukha).

During that weak period, there was one thing that could gain importance. That goes to the account of the seventeenth Satavahana ruler, Hala. Gathasaptasati is the famous work of Hala. The king Hala has a minister by name Gunadya, who wrote Brihatkadha.

Gautamiputra Satakarni

  • After all these rulers comes the most notable 23rd Satavahana king Gautamiputra Satakarni. 
  • He came to the throne in AD 62.
  • He made recovery of lost territories from the western Kshatrapas.
  • He was described as the Restorer of the glory of the Satavahanas.
  • Kingdoms under the territory of Gautamiputra Satakarni were - Asika, Assaka, Mulaka, Anupa, Kukura, Aparanta, Vidarbha, Akara, Saurashtra and Avanti.
  • Mountain regions under his rule were - Vindhya, Pariyatra, Achavata, Kanhagiri, Siritana, Sahya, Malaya, Mahendra, Sata and Chakora.
  • Gautamiputra Satakarni's kingdom also includes southern parts of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Odhisa.
  • He died in AD 86.
After Gautamiputra came Pulumavi II.

Then came Yajnasri Satakarni, fought with Saka Satrap, Rudradamana and was defeated. He lost all the western possessions. He ruled till AD 157. His ship marked coins shows extensive maritime trade. His death marked an end to the rule of Satavahanas by 2nd century AD.

Social and Spiritual conditions of Satavahanas

Capitals

  1. Dharanikota in Guntur district
  2. Pratistana in Aurangabad district
  3. Dharmapuri in Karimnagar district
  4. Srikakulam in Krishna district
The above mentioned places were used as capitals by Satavahana rulers during various periods of their rule.

During their period, Deccan was an emporium of inland and maritime trade. Regions between rivers Krishna and Godavari had many ports and were active. They had lot of currency to facilitate trade. The time of Telugus during that period was a period of great industrial, maritime and commercial activity.

Spiritual

Satavahana rulers followed Buddhism and also performed vedic ritualism. They constructed several Buddhist stupas, Viharas, chaityas. They loved literacy and architecture. The Stupa at Amaravati is known for its architecture par excellence.

Fall of Satavahanas left Andhra into Political chaos. Local kings and invaders formed several small kingdoms to start their own dynasties. During AD 180 and AD 624, Ikshvakus, Vishnukundins, Vakatakas, Pallavas, Anandagotras, Kalingas and others ruled over their small kingdoms. This continued till the rise of Eastern Chalukyas.

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16 January 2016

TSPSC Group II exam Scheme and Syllabus of Examination

TSPSC Group II exam Scheme and Syllabus of Examination


The first stage of Group II TSPSC examination is a objective written type exam consisting of four papers, each paper 150 multiple choice questions for 150 marks, with a duration of two and half hours for each paper. This means that the exam will be held in two days, each day two shifts.

Scheme of Examination

The four papers of the Group II exam are:

  1. General Studies and General Abilities
  2. History, Polity and Society
    1. Socio - Cultural History of India and Telangana 
    2. Overview of Indian Constitution and Politics
    3. Social Structure, Issues and Public Policies
  3. Economy and Development
    1. Indian Economy: Issues and Challanges
    2. Economy and Development of Telangana
    3. Issues of Development and Change
  4. Telangana Movement and State Formation
    1. The Idea of Telangana (1948 - 1970)
    2. Mobilisation Phase (1971 - 1990)
    3. Towards formation of Telangana State (1991 - 2014)
And then Interview for 75 Marks.
Telangana State Public Service Commission Group II exams

Syllabus of the Examination

  1. Paper I: General Studies and General Abilities

    1. Current Affairs - Regional, National and International
    2. International Relations and Events
    3. General Science, India's achievements in science and technology
    4. Environmental Issues; Disaster Management - Prevention and Mitigation Strategies
    5.  Geography
    6. History and Cultural Heritage of India
    7. Society, Culture, Heritage, Arts and Literature of Telangana
    8. Policies of Telangana State
    9. Schemes of Telangana State
    10. Social Exclusion, Rights, Issues and Inclusive Policies
    11. Logical Reasoning: Analytical Ability and Data Interpretation
    12. Basic English (10th Standard)
  2. Paper II: History, Polity and Society

    1. Socio - Cultural History of India and Telangana 
      1. Salient features of Indus Valley Civilisation
        1. Society and culture - Early and later vedic civilisations
        2. Religious movements in 6th century B.C. - Jainism and Buddhism
        3. Socio cultural contributions of Mauryas, Guptas, Pallavas, Chalukyas, Cholas art and architecture - Harshs and the Rajput age.
      2. The advent of Islam and the establishment of Delhi Sultanate
        1. Socio - Cultural conditions under the sultanate - Sufi and Bhakti movements
        2. The Mughals: Social and cultural conditions; Language, Literature, Art and Architecture
        3. Rise of Marathas and their contribution to culture
        4. Socio - cultural conditions in the Deccan under the Bahamanis and the Vijayanagara - Literature, Art and Architecture
      3. Advent of Europeans
        1. Rise and expansion of British rule
        2. Socio - Cultural policies - Cornwallis, Wellesley, William Bentick and others
        3. The rise of socio religious reform movements in the 19th century
        4. Social protest movements in India - Jothiba and Savitribhai Phule, Ayyankali, Narayana Guru, Periyar Ramaswamy Naicker, Gandhi, Ambedkar etc.
      4. Socio cultural conditions in ancient Telangana
        1. Kings and kingdoms
          • Satavahanas
          • Ikshvakus
          • Vishnukundins
          • Mudigonda
          • Vemulavada Chalukyas
        2. Religion, Literature, Art and Architecture
        3. Medieval Telangana - Contribution of Kakatiyas, Rachakonda and Devarakonda Velamas, Qutub Shahis
        4. Socio cultural developments :  emergence of composite culture
        5. Fairs, Festivals, Mohrram, Ursu, Jataras etc.
      5. Formation of Asafjahi dynasty - from Nijaam-ul-Mulk to Mir Osaman Ali Khan
        1. Salarjung reforms social systems and social conditions - Jagirdars, Jamindars, Deshmukhs and Doras 
        2. Vetti and bhagela system and position of women
        3.  Rise of socio cultural movements in Telangana
        4. Arya samaj, Andhra Maha Sabha, Andhra Mahila Sabha, Adi-Hindu Movements, Literary and library movements
        5. Tribal and peasant revolts: Raamji Gond, Kumaram Bheemu
        6. Telangana peasant armed struggle - police action and the end of Nizam rule
    2. Overview of Indian Constitution and politics
      1.  Evolution of Indian constitution - Nature and salient features - Preamble
      2. Fundamental Rights - Directive principles of state policy - fundamental duties
      3. Distinctive feature of Indian federalism - Distribution of Legislative and administrative powers between Union and states
      4. Union and State governments - President - Prime minister and council of ministers; Governor, Chief minister and council of ministers - powers and functions
      5. Rural and urban governance with special reference to 73rd and 74th amendments
      6. Electoral system: free and fair elections, Malpractices; Election commission; Electoral reforms and political policies
      7. Judicial system in India - Judicial Activism
        1. Special provisions for scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, backward class, women and minorities
        2. Welfare mechanism for enforcement - National commission for scheduled castes, National commission for scheduled tribes and National commission for backward classes
      8. Indian constitution: New challenges
    3. Social  structures, issues and Public Policies
      1.  Indian Social Structure
        1. Salient features of Indian society: Caste, Family, Marriage, Kinship, Religion, Tribe, Women, Middle class - Socio cultural features of Telangana Society
      2. Social Issues
        1. Inequality and Exclusion: Casteism, Communalism, Regionalism, Violence against women, Child labour, Human trafficking, Disability and aged
      3. Social Movements
        1. Peasant's Movement
        2. Tribal movement
        3. Backward class movement
        4. Dalit movements
        5. Women's movements
        6. Regional autonomy movements
        7. Human rights movements
      4. Telangana specific social issues 
        1. Vetti, Jogini, Devadasi system
        2. Child labour
        3. Girl child
        4. Flourosis
        5. Migration
        6. Farmer's and Weaver's distress
      5. Social policies and welfare programmes
        1. Affirmative policies fr SCs, STs, OBC, women, minorities, labour, disabled and children; 
        2. Welfare programmes : Employment, Poverty Alleviation programmes
        3. Rural and urban, women and child welfare, tribal welfare
  3. Paper III: Economy and Development

    1.  Indian Economy: Issues and Challenges
      1. Growth and development: Concepts of growth and development - Relationship between growth and development
      2. Measures of economic growth: National income - definition, methods and concets of measuring national income, Nominal and real income
      3. Poverty and unemployment: Concepts of poverty - income based poverty and non-income based poverty, measurement of poverty; Unemployment - Definition, types of unemployment
      4. Planning in Indian economy: Objectives, priorities, strategies and achievements of five year plans - 12th FYP, Inclusive growth - NITI Aayog
    2. Economy and Development of  Telangana
      1.  Telangana Economy in undivided Andhra Pradesh (1956 - 2014) - Derivations (water bachavat committee), Finances (Lalit, Bhargava, Wanchu committees) and employment (Jai Bharat Committee, Girgilan committee) and under development
      2. Land reforms in Telangana
    3. Issues of development and change
      1.  Development dynamics: Regional inequalities in India - Social inequalities - caste, ethnicity, gender and religion, migration, urbanisation
      2. Development and displacement: Land acquisition policy, resettlement and rehabilitation
      3. Economic reforms: growth, poverty and inequalities, Social development (education and health), Social transformation, social security
      4. Sustainable development, Concept and measurement, Sustainable development goals
  4. Paper IV: Telangana Movement and State Formation

    1.  Idea of Telangana (1948 - 1970)
      1. Historical background
        1.  Telangana as a distinctive cultural unit in Hyderabad princely state
        2. Geographical, economical, socio-political, cultural features of Telangana
        3. People of Telangana, Caste, Tribes, religion, arts, crafts, languages, dialects, fairs, festivals and important places
        4. Administration in Hyderabad princely states
        5. Administrative reforms of Salar Jung
        6. Origins of the issues of the Mulkis, Non-Mulkis
        7. Employment and Civil services rules under Mir Osman ALi Khan
        8. VII Nizam's Farmanof 1919
        9. Definition of Mulki - Establishment of Nizam's subjects league known as Mulki league 1935 and its significance
        10. Merger of Hyderabad state into Indian Union 1948
        11. Employment policies under military rule and Vellodi 1948-52
        12. Violation of Mulki rules and its implications
      2. Hyderabad state in independent India
        1.  Formation of popular ministry under Buragala Ramakrishna Rao
        2. 1952 Mulki agitation
        3. Demand for employment of local people
        4. City college incident - its importance
        5. Justice Jagan Mohan Reddy committee report, 1953 - Initial debates and demands for Telangana State
        6. Reasons fr the formation of states reorganisation commission(SRC) under Fazal Ali in 1953
        7. Main Provisions under the recommendations of SRC
        8. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar's views on SRC and Smaller states
      3. Formation of Andhra Pradesh: 1956
        1.  Gentleman's Agreement - Provisions and recommendations
        2. Telangana regional committee, Composition, functions and performance - violation of safeguards
        3. Migration from coastal Andhra region and is consequences 
        4. Post 1970 development scenario in Telangana - Agriculture, power, irrigation, education, employment, medical and health etc.
      4. Violation of employment and service rules
        1.  Origins of Telangana agitation
        2. Protest in Kothagudem and other places
        3. Fast unto death by Ravindranth
        4. 1969 agitation for separate Telangana
        5. Role of intellectuals, students, employees in Jai Telangana movement
      5. Formation of Telangana Praja Samiti and course of movement
        1.  The spread of Telangana movement - Major events, leaders and personalities
        2. All party accord - GO 36
        3. Suppression of Telangana movement and its consequences
        4. The eight point and five point formula and its implications
    2. Mobilisation phase (1971-90)
      1. Court judgements on Mulki rules
        1. Jai Andhra Movement and its consequences
        2. Six point formula 1973 and its provisions
        3. Article 371D, Presidential order 1975
        4. Officers (Jayabarath Reddy) committee report GO 610, 1985 - Provisions nd violations, Reaction and representation of Telangana empoyees
      2. Rise and spread of Naxalite movement - causes and consequences
        1. Anti landlord struggles in Jagityala - Siricilla, North Telangana
        2. Rytu cooli sanghams
        3. Alienation of tribal lands and Adivasi resistance - Jal, Jungle and Zamin
      3.  Rise of regional parties in 1980s
        1. Changes in Political, socio economic, and cultural fabric of Telangana
        2. Notion of Telugu Jati and suppression of Telangana Identity
        3. Expansion of new economy in Hyderabad and other parts of Telangana
        4. Real estate, finance contracts, film industry, media, contracts and entertainment industry; corporate education and hospitals
        5. Dominant culture and its implications for Telangana Self-respect, dialect, language and culture
      4. Liberalisation and Privatisation policies in 1990s and their consequences
        1. Emergence of regional disparities and imbalances in political power, administration, education, employment
        2. Agrarian crisis and decline of handicrafts in Telangana and its impact in Telangana society and its economy
      5. Quest for Telangana Indentity
        1. Intellectual discussions and debates
        2. Political and ideological efforts
        3. Growth of popular unrest against regional disparities, discrimination and under development of Telangana
    3. Towards the formation of Telangana State
      1. Public awakening and intellectual reaction against discrimination
        1.  Formation of civil society organisation
        2. Articulation of separate Telangana identity
        3. Initial organisations raised the issues of separate Telangana
        4. Telangana formation trust - Telangana Aikya Vedika
        5. Bhuvanagiri sabha
        6. Telangana Jana sabha
        7. Telangana Maha Sabha
        8. Warangal declaration, Telangana Vidyarthula Vedika
        9. Efforts of Telangana Congress and BJP in highlighting the issues
      2. Establishment of Telangana Rashtra Samiti in 2001
        1.  Political realignment and electoral alliances in 2004
        2. Later phase of Telangana movement - TRS in UPA
        3. Girgliani committee
        4. Telangana employees joint action committee
        5. Pranab Mukherjee committee 2009 - Election, alliances, Telangana in Elections manifesto
        6. The agitation against Hyderabad as free zone and demand for separate statehood
        7. Fast unto death by K Chandra Sekhar Rao
        8. Formation of political joint action committee 2009
      3. Role of political parties
        1.  TRS, Congress, BJP, Left parties, TDP, MIM and other political parties
        2. Dalit Bahujan sanghams and Grass root movement organisations
        3. Other joint action committees and popular protests
        4. Suicides for the cause of Telangana
      4. Cultural revivalism in Telangana
        1.  Other symbolic expressions in Telangana Movement
        2. Literary forms - performing arts and other cultural expression - writers, poets, singers, intellectuals, artists, journalists, artists, employees, advocates, doctors, NRIs, women, civil society groups, organised and unorganised sectors, caste, communities, and other social groups in transforming the agitation into a mass movement
        3. Forms of protest and major events - Sakalajanula Samme, Non-cooperation movement, Million March
      5. Parliamentary process
        1.  UPA government's stand on Telangana, All-party meeting
        2. Anthony committee - statements on Telangana by central home minister
        3. Sri Krishna Committee report and its recommendations
        4. AP assembly and parliamentary proceedings on Telangana
        5. Declaration of Telangana state in Parliament
        6. Andhra Pradesh state reorganisation act 2014
        7. Elections and victory of Telangana Rashtra Samiti
        8. The first government of Telangana State
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